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Whereas hypokrisis applied to any sort of public performance (including the art of rhetoric), hypokrites was a technical term for a stage actor and was not considered an appropriate role for a public figure. In Athens during the 4th century BC, for example, the great orator Demosthenes ridiculed his rival Aeschines, who had been a successful actor before taking up politics, as a hypocrites whose skill at impersonating characters on stage made him an untrustworthy politician. This negative view of the hypokrites, perhaps combined with the Roman disdain for actors, later shaded into the originally neutral hypokrisis. It is this later sense of hypokrisis as "play-acting", i.e., the assumption of a counterfeit persona, that gives the modern word hypocrisy its negative connotation.



In some translations of the Book of Job, the Hebrew word chaneph is rendered as "hypocrite", though it usually means "godless" or "profane". In the Christian Bible, Jesus condemns the scribes and Pharisees as hypocrites in the passage known as the Woes of the Pharisees.[15][16]He also denounces hypocrites in more general terms in Matthew 7:5.

Recently, hypocrisy has emerged as a key focus in philosophical discussions of the ethics of blame. It seems that even if a person has violated some moral norm and is genuinely blameworthy for doing so, it is open to them to challenge the blame leveled at them on the grounds that it is hypocritical; a typical expression of this idea is the phrase, "You have no right to blame me!" Accordingly, some philosophers argue that in order to have the standing or entitlement to blame others, one's blame must not be hypocritical. Defenses of this position have usually focused on the connection between hypocrisy and fairness: the basic idea is that the hypocritical blamer in some way fails to treat the target of her blame as a moral equal.[43] Other proposed explanations include the idea that standing in a moral community requires a reciprocal willingness to accept blame, a willingness that hypocrites lack.[44] Patrick Todd argues that all and only those who are committed to the relevant norms possess the standing to blame, and hypocrites lack commitment in the relevant sense.[45] Other philosophers reject the "No-hypocrisy" condition on standing altogether.[46] Typically, these philosophers do not deny that sometimes the wrongness of hypocrisy can outweigh a would-be blamer's entitlement to blame others; but they will insist that this is not invariably the case, and some hypocrites do have standing to blame.[47] R.A. Duff suggests that underlying the disagreement between these two views is a disagreement about the size and scope of moral community, while Kyle Fritz and Daniel Miller suggest that the rejection of the "No-hypocrisy" condition reflects a failure to distinguish between the right to blame and the value of blaming.

hypocrisy is unavoidable and necessary. If people were required, at all times, to live up to ideals of honesty, loyalty and compassion in order for those ideals to exist, there would be no ideals. Being a moral person is a struggle in which everyone repeatedly fails, becoming a hypocrite in each of those moments. A just and peaceful society depends on hypocrites who ultimately refused to abandon the ideals they betray.

Gates was asked in an interview with the BBC in Kenya what his response would be to someone who would call him a hypocrite for being a "climate change campaigner" while also flying "around the world in a private jet."

How not to be a hypocrite: the indispensable guide to school choice that morally perplexed parents have been waiting for.Many of us believe in social justice and equality of opportunity - but we also want the best for our kids. How can we square our political principles with our special concern for our own children? This marvellous book takes us through the moral minefield that is school choice today.Does a commitment to social justice mean you have to send your children to the local comprehensive - regardless of its academic results? Is it hypocritical to disapprove of private schools and yet send your child to one? Some parents feel guilty but shouldn't. Others should feel guilty but don't. Read How Not to be a Hypocrite, then answer the questionnaire, and work out where you stand on this crucial issue.

Those who don't are hypocrites. The dichotomy here is that they may fervently and honestly believe what they say is right and good... they just don't have the moral strength or willpower to consistently live up to their own high standards. (Unless, of course, they're outright liars with no intention of living up to said standards.) They might believe that Utopia Justifies the Means and that they aren't worthy of it — or that only they can be entrusted to use those means because they're so enlightened (ie. better than everyone else). Maybe they're deeply in denial or have a severe lack of self-awareness, and justify their hypocrisy as either necessary or dismiss it with a simple, "That's different." In other cases, they might find the lure of Forbidden Fruit impossible to resist. Or maybe they think the rules should only apply to others.

If found out and/or exposed, the hypocrite will have the chance to mend their ways and do a Heel–Face Turn in one of two forms: either loosen their standards (and cut everyone else the same slack they give themselves), or tighten their belt (and actually live up to their espoused ideals). Failure to do either is usually enough for either a mental breakdown (heroic or villainous, depending on the character) or a full-on Face–Heel Turn as they reject their morality and embrace their vice. Alternatively, because they are feigning what they claim to be, they may find they are Becoming the Mask.

Heroes are often accused of hypocrisy by villains who want to believe they're not that different and brag At Least I Admit It. Heroes who actually are hypocrites tend to hear "What the Hell, Hero?" quite a lot. (Unless they don't.) Hypocrites, be they heroes or villains, often find themselves hated by the audience (intentionally or not) even more than the Card-Carrying Villain, chiefly because they lied about their convictions, while those evil villains come off as being pretty honest in what they do. This is usually because of the Holier Than Thou implications that someone who publicly preaches about good things is signaling to other people that they are a good person (or are at least better than some others), and people feel cheated when that does not end up being the case; Treachery Is a Special Kind of Evil, after all, and a Hypocrite's actions betray their words, preaching, and supposedly good proposals. Remember also, however, that the Hypocrite Has a Point; just because someone is being hypocritical does not also mean that they are wrong.

However, like mentioned above, it's possible to be hypocritical and a good person at the same time, whether that would be a Jerk with a Heart of Gold, or a full-blown Nice Guy, and it depends on how severe the hypocrisy is (and the hypocrite's level of self-awareness). This in return, is what makes hypocrisy mainly considered to be a minor form of jerkassery by default.

In ancient times, this was a person who put on a mask and pretended to be someone he was not. In religion, a hypocrite is someone who disguises or conceals their true nature, motive or feelings behind a false appearance.

Immediately after saying this, Jesus observed a destitute widow giving her last 2 cents to the treasury of these hypocrites who probably deceived her. He then revealed that this entire oppulent, godless Temple would be utterly destroyed, a Divine judgment that used the Roman army for His purposes in 70 AD, dissolving the hard-hearted Jewish nation for 2,000 years. The vast majority in Galilee and Judea rejected their Messiah who fully verifed his identity with thousands of miracles. Instead of believing and following God incarnate, they caused His execution.

Accusations of hypocrisy can have serious consequences. Chances are good that when you perceive a person to be a hypocrite, you devalue him or her and his or her message. A person deemed a hypocrite might be ignored, disliked, resented or opposed. Regardless of its importance or value, their message might be disregarded or become tainted by the untrustworthiness of the source.

The accusation that someone is a hypocrite, then, is serious and can be very hurtful. Who qualifies as being a hypocrite? Research suggests that people interpret four types of behavior as hypocritical.

You might be quick to identify hypocrisy in others, but are you as aware of your own inconsistencies? Research suggests that people are reluctant to consider their own behavior to be hypocritical. People are more critical of others when giving examples of someone who was a hypocrite and more self-affirming when recalling an example of their own hypocritical behavior or when someone had called them a hypocrite. It is easier to recognize contradictions between words and actions in another than in yourself. We can make excuses for our own inconsistencies, but not for others, without knowing their inner motives, thoughts or feelings.

Dick always plays favorites, and his favorite favorite is himself. That habitual self-favoritism gets to another reason hypocrisy angers us: hypocrites implicitly assign themselves a different moral and social status.

Dick could stop being a hypocrite either by acting in ways that reflect his principles or by endorsing principles that reflect the self-importance of his actions. But he does neither of these things.

"I was a paid hypocrite because I wasn't OK with it and I was still doing it," Jones, 20, said Monday in an interview with a TV station in Houston, where he was speaking at the World Harvest Outreach Church.

Sami Grover is a green lifestyle blogger and self-confessed eco-hypocrite. He has spent most of his life trying to live a greener lifestyle and has written more than 2,000 articles covering everything from electric bike ownership to peeing on your compost heap. Yet he has only been marginally successful in reducing his own environmental impact. Active in the sphere of good-for-the-world business, he has developed branding projects for clients including Burt's Bees, Dogwood Alliance, and Jada Pinkett Smith. He believes that, in order to make a difference, each of us has to identify our greatest point of leverage and focus our efforts there. He lives in Durham, North Carolina, with his wife and kids. CA. 350c69d7ab